These non-official languages may be used in limited semi-official use where it has been determined that these languages are prevalent. ... Afrikaans IsiZulu lists Ndebele official languages Xhosa… Learning Xhosa is a challenging, but rewarding experience. Significant numbers of immigrants from Europe, elsewhere in Africa, and the Indian subcontinent (largely as a result of the British Indian indenture system) means that a wide variety of other languages can also be found in parts of South Africa. With 11 official languages, South Africa is one of the most linguistically diverse countries in the world. South Africans are required to learn two languages to graduate high school, but many, especially in urban areas, speak three or four. Although South Africa has 11 official languages we would say the 12th should be Slang. The 15 clicks (which learners tend to battle with the most) are divided into three categories. The 11 languages spoken in South Africa are: English, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa, Southern Sotho, Northern Sotho, Tswana, Venda, Tsonga, Swati and Ndebele. The next are the alveolar clicks with the tongue tip and palate. It is a regional language, with a third of its speakers living in the Eastern Cape, where it is the language of 83.4% of the provincial population. Other Nguni languages include Swati, Northern Ndebele and Zulu. [8] The spelling of Venda is also incorrectly[according to whom?] South African … South Africa has eleven official languages.They are Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu.Most South Africans (over 99%) speak one of these languages as a first language. Zulu is the most prevalent, followed by Xhosa, Afrikaans and English. The eleventh official language is English, which is the primary language used in parliamentary and state discourse, though all official languages are equal in legal status, and unofficial languages are protected under the Constitution of South Africa, though few are mentioned by any name. Most South Africans can speak more than one language,[3] and there is very often a diglossia between the official and unofficial language forms for speakers of the latter. This site is supported by ads. This click is like the sound people make to call horses. Those who speak this language typically form part of the ethnic group called the amaXhosa and refer to their language as isiXhosa. It too is a tonal language, governed by the noun, which dominates the sentence. The most common language spoken as a first language by South Africans is Zulu (23 percent), followed by Xhosa (16 percent), and Afrikaans (14 percent). This site is not affiliated with any government entity associated with a name similar to the site domain name. The majority of languages which contain clicks originate with the Khoisan languages. Xhosa is also heard in Johannesburg and the Western Cape. South African Sign Language has legal recognition but is not an official language, despite a campaign and parliamentary recommendation for it to be declared one.[2]. Densely populated with uncommon consonants, Xhosa consists of the usual pulmonic egressive sounds (used in English), ejectives, 15 clicks and an implosive. Unofficial and marginalised languages include what are considered some of Southern Africa's First Nation languages: Khoekhoegowab, !Orakobab, Xirikobab, N|uuki, !Xunthali, and Khwedam; and other African languages, such as SiPhuthi, IsiHlubi, SiBhaca, SiLala, SiNhlangwini ("IsiZansi"), SiNrebele (SiSumayela), IsiMpondo/IsiMpondro, KheLobedu, SePulana, HiPai, SeKutswe, SeṰokwa, SeHananwa, SiThonga, SiLaNgomane, SheKgalagari, XiRhonga, SeKopa( Sekgaga) and others. While most South Africans can communicate in more than one language, English is the most commonly spoken and the language of official business and commerce. Prior to 1994, South Africa had only two official languages, English and Afrikaans. This creates a sound somewhat resembling a cork being pulled out of a bottle. Xhosa, or IsiXhosa, is one of South Africa’s eleven official languages, and is predominantly spoken in the Eastern Cape region, including the former Transkei and Ciskei areas, where Mandela and former president Thabo Mbeki were born. Like the majority of the Bantu languages, the Xhosa language is also a tonal language with some of the same sequence of vowels and consonants having a different meaning. Xhosa is characterised by a number of clicking sounds, which are formed by the tongue. The Xhosa language (Isixhosa), of which there are variations, is part of the Nguni language group. South Africa has 11 official languages! The indigenous African languages of South Africa which are official, and therefore dominant, can be divided into two geographical zones, with Nguni languages being predominant in the south-eastern third of the country (Indian Ocean coast) and Sotho-Tswana languages being predominant in the northern third of the country located further inland, as also in Botswana and Lesotho. Though these are still under debate, one frequently accepted dialect grouping is as follows: Xhosa (original), Bhaca, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ngqika, Mpondo, Mfengu and Bomvana. The national government and provincial governments, by legislative and other measures, must regulate and monitor their use of official languages. Xhosa Language. Many of these languages have a level of intelligibility with each other as they share many linguistic features. Henry Hare Dugmore helped translate the entire Bible in Xhosa language. Xhosa has ten vowels. Xhosa or isiXhosa is one of the eleven official languages of the Republic of South Africa and is spoken by about 8 million people as a first or home language (‘mother tongue’). Sikholelwa ekutseni iNingizimu Afrika yabo bonkhe labahlala kuyo, sihlangene ngekwehlukahlukana kwetfu; Re dumela gore Afrika-Borwa ke ya batho bohle ba ba dulago go yona, re le ngata e tee e nago le pharologano. All rights reserved. Since the first democratic elections in 1994, in terms of the new interim constitution, English is now but one of eleven official languages in the `new South Africa' (the others being Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa, siSwati, Ndebele, Southern Sotho, Tswana, Northern Sotho, Venda, and Tsonga). Our highly qualified professional linguists are at the pinnacle of language expertise and cultural heritage in South Africa and thought leaders in their respective linguistic fields. The language is marked by the large number of click consonant sounds used. Surrounded by majestic mountains and stretching from the coast to the Klein Karoo, the Cape Winelands enjoys the perfect climate and growing conditions to support its many wineries. Fewer than two percent of South Africans speak a first language other than an official one. (a) The national government and provincial governments may use any particular official languages for the purposes of government, taking into account usage, practicality, expense, regional circumstances and the balance of the needs and preferences of the population as a whole or in the province concerned; but the national government and each provincial government must use at least two official languages. Xhosa is written using a Latin alphabet. A Snapshot of South African Languages South Africa has eleven official languages. Fortunately one of those is English and many people speak it…. Mr Mandela was born in the Eastern Cape, the homeland of many Xhosa speakers. In the older immigrant communities there are: Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Portuguese, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Yiddish, Italian and smaller numbers of Dutch, French and German speakers. When it is the dominant language spoken at home, is it the father’s or the mother’s language. The Xhosa are the second largest cultural group in South Africa, after the Zulu-speaking nation. It is a tonal language, governed by the noun - which d… Xhosa is listed amongst South Africa's 11 official languages and is spoken by approximately 18% of the country's population (plus-minus 7.9 million individuals). They were housed on the farm Zandvliet, far outside of Cape Town, in an attempt to minimise his influence on the VOC's slaves. Approximately 16 percent of South Africa’s population, or 8.3 million people, cite Xhosa as being their home language. Xhosa. All Rights Reserved. © Copyright 1995-2021 Southafrica.com. South African Culture and Tradition Explored. Xhosa is one of the 11 official languages recognized by the South African Constitution, and in 2006 it was determined that just over 7 million South Africans speak Xhosa as a home language. The Xhosa language has been grouped into a number of dialects. Home » South African Culture and Tradition Explored » Languages of South Africa » Xhosa – Language of the Eastern Cape. Please help us out and disable your ad-blocker. Believe that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, united in our diversity. Many unofficial languages have been variously claimed to be dialects of official languages, which largely follows the Apartheid practice of the Bantustans, wherein minority populations where legally assimilated towards the official ethnos of the Bantustan or "Homeland". Approximately 16 percent of South Africa’s population, or 8.3 million people, cite Xhosa as being their home language. Of particular note is the Cape Muslim pioneering of the first Afrikaans literature, written in Arabic Afrikaans, which was an adaptation of the Jawi script, using Arabic letters to represent Afrikaans for both religious and quotidian purposes. Tsotsitaal in its original form as "Flaaitaal" was based on Afrikaans, a language derived from Dutch, which is the most widely spoken language in the western half of the country (Western and Northern Cape). English is the fourth most common first language in the country (9.6%), but is understood in most urban areas and is the dominant language in government and the media.[4]. Thanks to the variety of languages spoken in South Africa, locals tend to borrow words from each language, resulting in slang words or phrases known as 'South Africanisms'. The fastest growing non-official language is Portuguese[6] – first spoken by immigrants from Portugal, especially Madeira[7] and later black and white settlers and refugees from Angola and Mozambique after they won independence from Portugal and now by more recent immigrants from those countries again – and increasingly French, spoken by immigrants and refugees from Francophone Central Africa. South Africa - South Africa - Languages: The Black African population is heterogeneous, falling mainly into four linguistic categories. All trademarks and web sites that appear throughout this site are the property of their respective owners. The official languages of the Republic are. It also became the de facto national language of the Griqua (Xiri or Griekwa) nation, which was also primarily a Khoekhoe group. Most South Africans can speak more than one language. Glo dat Suid-Afrika behoort aan almal wat daarin woon, verenig in ons verskeidenheid. Xhosa is an unusual and attractive sounding language, though difficult to master. Sikholelwa kwelokuba uMzantsi-Afrika ngowabo bonke abahlala kuwo, bemanyene nangona bengafani. It is, conversely, the southernmost of the Nguni languages. Those who speak this language typically form part of the ethnic group called the amaXhosa and refer to their language as isiXhosa. However, most of the people can speak more than one language. The Zulu refer to the Eastern Cape as KwaXhosa which is translated to “place of the Xhosa”. As mentioned before, there is no appropriate term for one’s mother-tongue. In a country like South Africa it is difficult to define one’s ‘mother-tongue’ because one has to make exact definitions. For each of the two groups, the languages within that group are for the most part intelligible to a native speaker of any other language within that group. The 2011 census of South African Languages accounted for 4.8 million fluent English speakers. South Africa’s Constitution recognises 11 official languages: Sepedi (also known as Sesotho sa Leboa), Sesotho, Setswana, siSwati, Tshivenda, Xitsonga, Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, isiXhosa and isiZulu.. For centuries South Africa’s official languages were European – Dutch, English, Afrikaans. Xhosa lesson by Nelson Sebezela, guide for Calabash Tours in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, interviewed by Patrick Leighton. The English text of the constitution signed by president Nelson Mandela on 16 December 1996 uses (mostly) the names of the languages expressed in those languages themselves. Other significant languages in South Africa, Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Communities, "South Africa could make signing official language", "The 11 languages of South Africa - South Africa Gateway", "A Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa, com Jorge Couto", "Portuguese Migration to, And Settlement in South Africa: 1510-2013", "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 200 of 1993", "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 - Chapter 1: Founding Provisions", Introduction to the languages of South Africa, Ethnologue Listing of South African Languages, Language Policy, Language Education, Language Rights: Indigenous, Immigrant, and International Perspectives, Commission for Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Community Rights, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Languages_of_South_Africa&oldid=998566092, Pages using columns with the default column width, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. There are eleven major languages of South Africa; Afrikaans, English, Swazi, Sotho, Swan, Ndebele, Venda, Zulu, Northern Sotho, Tsonga, and Xhosa. We are using cookies to make the website better. Political exiles from the VOC colony of Batavia were also brought to the Cape, and these formed a major influencing force in the formation of Afrikaans, particularly in its Malay influence, and its early Jawi literature. rendered as Tshivenda instead of the correct Tshivenḓa. Gauteng is the most linguistically heterogeneous province, with roughly equal numbers of Nguni, Sotho-Tswana and Indo-European language speakers, with Khoekhoe influence. When the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910, English was made the official language along with Dutch, which was replaced by Afrikaans in 1925. [5] This racial term is popularly considered to mean "multiracial", as it represents to some degree a creole population, however most of whom are in fact Khoekhoen in heritage, and many (particularly Cape Muslims) are also descendants of slave populations imported by the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC) from slaving posts in West and East Africa, and from its colonies of the Indian Ocean trade route. However. Xhosa is listed amongst South Africa's 11 official languages and is spoken by approximately 18% of the country's population (plus-minus 7.9 million individuals). Xhosa is spoken by 7.6 million people, or about 18% of the South African population. Xhosa. Many South Africans mix and match the languages together, which leads to South Africa having a very unique local language. The eleventh official language is English, which is the primary language used in parliamentary and state discourse, though all official languages are equal in legal status, and unofficial languages are protected under the Constitution of South Africa, though few are mentioned by any name. Xhosa is well known for its set of three major clicks. The constitution mentions "sign language" in the generic sense rather than South African Sign Language specifically. As a Bantu language, Xhosa and Zulu people are often able to understand one another. It belongs to the so-called Nguni language group of the Bantu language family of Niger-Congo. A top South African university has dropped Afrikaans as its official language in favour of English. According to South Africa Info 17.6% of the country speaks Xhosa. The last is a lateral click with the tongue at the side of the mouth. When visiting the Eastern Cape be sure to ask an amaXhosa to teach you a few phrases, they are certain to be willing to share their unique language with you. Bakholwa bona iSewula Afrika ingeyabo boke abahlala kiyo, sibambene ngokwahlukahlukana kwethu. Most South Africans can speak more than one language. More importantly, these languages have significant local functions in specific communities whose identity is tightly bound around the linguistic and cultural identity that these non-official SA languages signal. U tenda uri Afrika Tshipembe ndi ḽa vhoṱhe vhane vha dzula khaḽo, vho vhofhekanywaho vha vha huthihi naho vha sa fani. The language is marked by the large number of click consonant sounds used. The two South African languages isiZulu and isiXhosa as well as isiNdebele and siSwati, both languages spoken in Mpumalanga, are termed Nguni languages as they are spoken by the Nguni people to which the Zulu, Xhosa, Swazi and Ndebele tribes belong to. There are 11 official languages in South Africa, of which Xhosa is one of the most widely spoken. Your handy dandy guide to all 11 official languages of South Africa, including Xhosa, Zulu and Afrikaans. The Xhosa language is one of the official languages of South Africa and Zimbabwe.It is a Nguni Bantu language known for its click consonants. Re dumela hore Afrika Borwa ke naha ya bohle ba phelang ho yona, re kopane le ha re fapane. South Africa is the native land of Xhosa, which is spoken chiefly in the Eastern Cape Province. Re dumela fa Aforika Borwa e le ya botlhe ba ba tshelang mo go yona, re le ngata e le nngwe ka go farologana. No part of this site shall be reproduced, copied, or otherwise distributed without the express, written consent of SouthAfrica.com. Xhosa is spoken widely by local staff and personnel. The majority of South Africans speak a language from one of the two principal branches of the Bantu languages that are represented in South Africa: the Sotho–Tswana branch (which includes Southern Sotho, Northern Sotho and Tswana languages officially), or the Nguni branch (which includes Zulu, Xhosa, Swati and Ndebele languages officially). Yusuf, along with 49 followers including two wives, two concubines and twelve children, were received in the Cape on 2 April 1694 by governor Simon van der Stel. Afrikaans, however, originates in the Dutch varieties spoken in Khoekhoe communities of ǁHuiǃgaeb (the Khoekhoe name for the region of Cape Town), as a trade language before and during the early stages of the VOC occupation. Learn key phrases and find out about South African language … Afrikaans is also spoken widely across the centre and north of the country, as a second (or third or even fourth) language by Black South Africans (which, in South Africa, popularly means SiNtu-speaking populations) living in farming areas. Recognising the historically diminished use and status of the indigenous languages of our people, the state must take practical and positive measures to elevate the status and advance the use of these languages. Primary of these was the founder of Islam at the Cape, Sheikh Abadin Tadia Tjoessoep (known as Sheikh Yusuf). A journey through the lush Cape Winelands of the Western Cape will soon reveal why South Africa has gained an international reputation for the production of award-winning wines. [citation needed]. Density of first-language speakers of Sotho–Tswana languages. 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